To investigate the ability of stable isotope measurements to determine the provenance of Australian wines.
Origin verification of wines relies on the use of parameters that not only reflect the geology and water source of the location where grapes are grown, but also parameters that are not altered during vinification. Building on a recently completed feasibility study (AWR 2.2.2 Feasibility study for origin verification of Australian wine), several elemental isotope ratios such as boron, lithium and lead will be measured to provide information in addition to the strontium isotope ratio, on the vineyard location of the grapes from which the wine was made.
To supplement this dataset of trace elements and their isotopes and to achieve true independence of multiple data sources, oxygen-18 will also be analysed as an indication of the vineyard water source. These parameters will be measured in Australian wines, and wines from North and South America, Europe, and mainland Asia and Africa.
To verify that chosen parameters are not affected by variety (as has been highlighted in several recent papers in the literature), laboratory-scale wines will be made to assess numerous varieties grown in the same soil across several different locations. In addition, the temporal variation of these parameters will be assessed through the analysis of several vertical series of wines made from single vineyards over the last ten years. This information will be combined with the continued survey of the parameters determined to be most robust over a five-year period, to provide a series of reliable analytical protocols and metrics for the determination of wine origin.
In the later years of the project, a review of chemical and genetic techniques for the determination of varietal origin of wine will be undertaken, with the aim of targeting appropriate tools for this aspect of wine authentication.
This project will result in methods to analytically determine with a high degree of confidence, the origin of a wine, both variety and place.